Neutrino Physics & Experiment
1. Past History
Neutrino physics has had an interesting history. In 1930 Dr.
Pauli postulated the existence of the (electron) neutrino, in
1956 this was confirmed by Drs.
Reines and Cowan using a nuclear
reactor source of antineutrinos. In 1962, a second
distinct (muon) neutrino was shown to exist in a BNL experiment. For
that discovery Nobel Prize was awarded to Drs.
Schwartz and Steinberger. In 1995, the third, (tau) neutrino was
detected at FNAL. In parallel, Dr. Ray Davis' studies of solar
neutrinos confirmed understanding of stellar dynamics modulo
a 2/3 flux deficit that later was recognized as a result of
ν oscillations among the three flavors of neutrinos.
Properties of those oscillations were further unveiled with
followup solar, atmospheric, reactor and accelerator neutrino
studies. The discovery of oscillations, detection of
19 neutrino events from supernova 1987a by the old IMB and
Kamiokande water cherenkov detectors confirmed the theory of
supernova explosions. The WMAP experiment has started to see
imprints of neutrino mass effects on cosmic microwave
back ground radiation left from the Big Bang.
In 1998 Dr. Zohreh
Parsa started the Neutrino CP Violation studies, extra
Long Baseline (L, 2000 km < L < 4000
km) Neutrino (LBN) oscillation Physics and Experiment (LBNE)
that envisioned sending a very intense neutrino
(ν) beam (e.g., from Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island,
New York), through the earth to a far away underground multipurpose
large detector capable of making precision measurements of all the (ν)
neutrino oscillation parameters, Proton decay and observation of
natural sources of neutrinos such as supernova, providing a major
advances in neutrino science. The key to this approach is (extra
long) very long distance L. Length of the Baseline defines the physics
you can do, once chosen, can not be changed without establishing a new
Extra Long Base lines provide possibility of observing multiple nodes of the
Neutrino oscillation probability in appearance and disappearance
By measuring muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino
appearance, such a project would be capable of determining all 3
generation mixing angles, mass hierarchy, along with magnitude of the
CP violation (e.g., by measuring CKM phase and explicitly observing
differences in the muon neutrino and muon anti-neutrino
oscillations). No existing experiment so far has such capability.
E.g., Neutrinos emitted in the first few seconds of a core-collapse
supernova, would have insight into evolution of the universe. LBNE
(very Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment), would be capable of
measuring, (collecting and analyzing), the high-statistics neutrino
signals from a supernova in our galaxy; provide information on the
inside of the newly-formed neutron star; allowing possible observation
of black hole creation.
"Very" or "Extra" Long Baseline terms has been used, to distinct our
very Long Baseline (L) from other existing/ or
proposed experiments that use the term "Long Baseline Neutrino
Experiment (LBNE)" but have a short baseline, (e.g. Japan's Super-k
Detector with baseline of less than 300 km, etc). In existing
experiments, Detector(s) were placed
at the first node of oscillations (with short baseline). But with
extra long baseline LBNE, Detector(s) can be placed e.g. at the 2nd or
third nodes of oscillations, that would allow the CP violation
measurement in addition to the mixing angles, etc. In some of our earlier
simulation(s), L (lower bound) was reduced from 2000 km to 1300 km to
correspond to baseline of FNAL to Homestake.
Neutrinos are neutral subatomic particles that rarely interact with
matter. Over trillion neutrinos pass through your bodies per second
without leaving a trace. Neutrinos have low masses compared to other elementary
particles. These tiny particles with no electric charge are able to
oscillate, and change from one type of neutrino to
another, when studied at LBNE (DUNE) could provide a deeper understanding
of our universe.
Neutrinos come in three states, or flavors, and can transform from one
flavor into another; and that each neutrino flavor state is a mixture
of three different nonzero mass states. Neutrinos come from nuclear
reactions in stars, our sun, and on Earth. Three flavors are:
electron, Muon and tau Neutrinos, where muon is 200 times heavier than
the electron and tau is 3,500 times heavier.
Neutrinos emitted in the first few seconds of a core-collapse
supernova carry the potential for insight into the evolution of the
Results from the experiment should enable a broad exploration of the
three-flavor model of neutrino physics, help understand matter-antimatter
asymmetries (through charge-parity symmetry violation (CPV)) in
neutrino flavor mixing; unravel the mystery of matter generation in
the early universe; neutrino mass ordering; and precise measurement
of neutrino mixing parameters. Grand unified theories (GUTs),
predict rates for proton decay that cover a range directly
accessible with the next generation of large underground detectors.
3. LBNE (very Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment)
with Neutrino Source at BNL
Using a wide band muon neutrino beam from BNL to an
underground (e.g., 0.5 megaton water Cherenkov) detector at Homestake gold Mine in
South Dakota was one of our first study for "very Long Baseline
Neutrino Experiment" (LBNE). Interest in
LBNE with neutrino source at BNL to a far away (L=2540 km), underground Detector at Homestake,
grew. Dr. A. Mann (U.Penn.) was one of the 1st to ask Dr. Parsa, (with
his calls and in person), for her results for sending neutrinos (neutrino beam)
from BNL (AGS) to the underground detector(s) in Homestake Gold Mine. He and others became increasingly interested; worked hard to get fundings for water removal and
for Processing the Mine to an Underground Science Lab ("NUSL"; "DUSEL" etc.). Examples of Earlier simulations given in Fig.1 & Fig.2:
Browser for more Figs. or if blank.
Fig.1 (Top Fig): Variation of parameters,
e.g. variation of L (Baseline)
distance from ν source to the detector, in Probability vs Energy
Fig.2 (Lower Fig): CP Phase Variations, in
Probability vs Energy plots.
This page include part of Dr. Parsa's
In addition to Dr. Parsa, later Dr. Marciano (BNL),
vvand at Snowmass meeting (experimentalists) Drs. K. McDonald (Princeton U.),
S. Kahn (BNL), and
others joined the proposed (Extra) Very "Long Baseline Neutrino
Experiment" (LBNE), that could search for CP violation in the lepton
sector and precision studies of the neutrino mixing matrix and
more. Years later, a BNL associate director (at that time) formed
a group to look into AGS, neutrino source at BNL etc... With time the LBNE
Collaboration expanded to an international collaboration
and LBNE to a mega-science project.
Fig.3: Sketch of the 3-dimensional view of BNL neutrino
(shielding and decay tunnel are not shown here).
Fig. 4: Schematic of the BNL-AGS RHIC facility and
location of the
beam line for sending neutrino beam to Homestake mine in
and any detector in Western Direction. For more info e.g.,
|click Here | .
Potentials of intense neutrino beams from BNL and FNAL to (Long Baseline)
underground Detectors at Homestake, SD; Henderson, CO; Cascades,
WA; etc., were also investigated and studied as competition for Deep
Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory Site
increased. Later Homestake, S.D. was selected.
Fig. 5: Shows BNL, FNAL and 3 last possible DUSEL
Homestake (SD),Henderson (CO), and
Fig. 6: Drs. Z. Parsa, W. Marciano and R. Wilson in Henderson
(Molybdenum Mine), a proposed Underground Lab site in Co.
Fig. 7: Some of BNL LBNE Collaboration members (2014). Front row (L
to R) Y. Li, Z. Parsa, C. Zhang, P. Novakova, M. Bishai,
M. Diwan, 2nd row (L to R): W. J. Marciano, Jim Stewart,
M. Worcester, D. Barci, D. Kerr,
3rd row (L to R): R. Hackenburg, B. Yu,
D. Adams, M. Potekhin, S. Kettell, J. Dolph.
Interest for LBNE in U.S. with neutrino source at BNL to a far Detector
(underground at the Homestake, S.D L=2540 km), grew to fundamental
high priority international mega-science project for over a decade, as
"LBNE Collaboration" continued to expand. According to BNL Director at the
time, BNL received funding from DOE to start the LBNE with Source at
BNL, but (P. Paul said) he "had to return the money back to DOE" due to
conflict of AGS chair (retired) who wanted more funding...
3.1. Neutrino Detector
Neutrino detector is an aparatus/ structure used to detect and study neutrinos.
Since neutrinos interact weakly with other particles, Neutrino
detectors are made very large to detect a large number of neutrinos.
To block the background radiation and cosmic rays, they are placed underground.
There are various detectors (See Top Links- e.g. "Detectors-Photos"),
including: Super Kamiokande a large
volume of water surrounded by phototubes that look for the Cherenkov
radiation emitted when an incoming neutrino generates an electron or
muon in the water; Sudbury Neutrino Detector uses heavy water as
the detecting medium.
Other detectors may have large volumes of chlorine or gallium
that are periodically checked for excesses of argon or germanium,
respectively, which are created by neutrinos interacting with the
MINOS uses a solid plastic scintillator surrounded by phototubes;
Borexino uses a liquid pseudocumene scintillator also surrounded by phototubes;
The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Detector walls are lined with
photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), the tubes are designed to amplify and
record flashes of light that signify an antineutrino interaction.
The acoustic detection of neutrinos is done by
ANTARES, IceCube, and KM3NeT collaborations; etc.
4. LBNE Reconfiguration
Following sections include a brief chronology of LBNE Reconfiguration
with Neutrino Source at FNAL, (The Deep Underground Neutrino
Experiment), DUNE/LBNF development(s) etc. "Left Tabs" provides more
on LBNE and for beam to Detector at SURF (DUNE/LBNE); also on Reactor Experiment; Solar Neutrino Experiment; etc.
In 2012, Fermilab (FNAL) proposed for the LBNE with source at
FNAL. Phase-I (CD-1) was approved by DOE which
included construction of a Neutrino beamline
at FNAL, where the Neutrino beam would travel through
earth to a far detector at Sanford Lab in
|Click Here|. For Brookhaven National Laboratory, DOE's approval of CD-1 was an
important milestone after over decade of LBNE work at BNL.
Using a high intensity accelerator neutrino beam from FNAL to a, (L=1287.475 km or about 800 miles baseline) liquid Argon TPC detector at SURF
(Homestake), is the LBNE reconfiguration. This program goals, (are the BNL LBNE physics
goals that started over a decade earlier), include Determination of leptonic CP violation, v
mass hierarchy, underground physics etc. LBNE with source at FNAL later was renamed Deep
Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). LBNE Collaboration became DUNE
Fig. 8: DUNE (previously LBNE) Collaboration members from
BNL (May 2014): Front row (L to R):Y. Li, Z. Parsa, M. Diwan, P. Novakova,
D. Jaffe, R.Sharma, C.Zhang, N.Samios; Back row (L to R):
M. Creutz, X. Qian, B. Viren, W.Marciano, R. Hackenburg, B. Yu, D. Adams, L. Bignell, E. Worcester, M. Bishai, S. Kettell, M. Potekhin.
Fig. 9: March 4, 2015 Dr. Zohreh Parsa, BNL (2nd row Center) and
Neutrino Workshop Participants at Brookhaven National
Laboratory. For Larger photo.|Here|
Fig. 10: 2021 BNL DUNE Collaboration Members (
Left Tabs 16b & 16C).
There have been many Seminars in 2001 in addition to DUNE meetings and workshops.(see
Top - Links on Seminars..) E.g. on May 13, 2021 there were seminars at 9 am, 11 am, 2 pm, 3
pm, 4 pm virtually attended and more...
May 22, 2014 - P5 Report recommended new international LBNF (Long Baseline Neutrino Facility), with FNAL as the host Lab.
Fig. 11: DUNE International Collaboration.(For
"DUNE-Who are we" click
March 2015 -- LBNE (Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment) changed
to ELBNF (Experiment at Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility). ELBNF/DUNE new
Spokespersons |Andre Rubbia & Mark Thomson| thanked ELBNF/DUNE* collaboration.
Dec 2015 -- Conceptual Design Report; Vol 1, DUNE-CDR1-1601.05471.
January 2016 - December 2016 and January 2017 - December 2017 |Click Here|
Fig. 12: DUNE Collaboration at CERN,
with US & International members, Jan 2017.
Fig. 13: May 2017--DUNE Collaboration at FNAL(larger version
|Here|); Talks Here
Fig. 14: May 2018--DUNE Collaboration at FNAL
Fig. 15: Schematic of Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment |
with source at FNAL to 800 miles (baseline) detector.
5. DUNE/ LBNF
The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) expected to use the most intense
neutrino beam and a larg detector to study neutrino (v) the most
abundant matter particles in the universe. Scientists continue
working to discover the missing pieces that could explain e.g., how the known particles
and forces created in our universe; discover if neutrino is the
reason our matter-filled universe exists, to check formation of
black hole in a nearby galaxy; proton decay, etc.
The full-size DUNE Detector, expected to be built about a mile
underground at the Sanford Research Facility (in homestake, South
Dakota). Detectors record particle tracks emerging from
rare neutrino collisions with (massive target material) atoms. For
more on Detectors
For the 35-Ton Prototype Detector for DUNE YouTube, click
Fig. 16: Left to Right: DUNE Spokespersons Ed
Blucher, U. Chicago & M. Thomson UK; Technical Coordinator: E.James;
International Project Manager S.Kettell BNL.
Fig. 17: July 21, 2017 LBNF Groundbreaking |Here|--one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, construction began as part of LBNF.
Excavating Crews will excavate four massive caverns that will house
Jan 2018 --- "Next DUNE Collaboration meeting", will be posted on |Indico|.
Jan 29 - Feb 2, 2018 --- Neutrino Platform Week, see
March 1, 2018 - New DUNE Co-Spokesperson Prof. Stefan
U.of Manchester & Co-Spokeperson Prof. Ed Blucher U. of
Fig. 18: Left: Prof. Stefan
Söldner-Rembold; Middle: Prof. Ed Blucher;
Right: Prof. R. Wilson, DUNE Institute Board Chair (re-elected 2 additional yrs) .
March 20 - 22, 2018 --- "DOE Project Review of LBNF - DUNE" at FNAL;
Apr 20, 2018 — Dune Collaboration talks |Here|.
May 15-18, 2018 — DUNE Collaboration meeting | Here|
June 4–9, 2018 --For Neutrino 2018 in Heidelberg |Here|
July 4-11, 2018 -- Seoul |ICHEP|
and |Status of
single&dual phase DUNE proto..|
August 14, 2018 -- |Postdoc Postion at MSU|
and |Faculty/Academic Staff|.
Jan 3-4, 2019 -- BNL
DUNE Computing Workshop
Jan 22 - 25, 2019 -- PHYSTAT-nu series 2019 Workshop - CERN
Jan 28 - Feb 1, 2019 -- The 12th DUNE Collaboration Meeting - CERN
Fig. 19: DUNE Collaboration at CERN |Click Here| For Larger version.
April 17, 2019 Bob Wilson (Fig 25 & |Here|), re-elected IB Chair for 2 more yrs.
May 20 - 24, 2019 -- The 13th DUNE Collaboration Meeting -
FNAL According to DUNE spokeperson Collaboration now has
1069 collaborators, from 177 institutions, in 31 countries, (578 faculty, 184 postdocs, 109 engineers, 198 PhD students).
From: "Armenia (3), Brazil (31), Canada (1), CERN (37), Chile (3),
China (2), Colombia (8), Czech Republic (11), Spain (35), Finland (4),
France (38), Greece (5), India (44), Iran (2), Italy (66), Japan (7),
Madagascar (4), Mexico (10), The Netherlands (6), Paraguay (4), Peru (7), Poland (6), Portugal (6), Romania (7), Russia (10), South Korea (5), Sweden (1), Switzerland (30), UK (146), Ukraine (4), USA (528)".
Fig. 20: 13th DUNE Collaboration Meeting at FNAL. Larger version. |Here|
For DUNE collaboration Meetings need to input access code (passwd)
September 23-27, 2019 Collaboration Meeting (CM)-
October 9, 2019 --
2nd Proto DUNE detector at CERN saw its first tracks. Tests
start at CERN for large-scale prototype technology to detect neutrinos.
November 11, 2019 — Chris
Mossey the Deputy Director for the LBNF (Long Baseline Neutrino
Facility) was elected to National Academy of Construction.
November 12-13, 2019 -- Module of Opportunity for DUNE Workshop at BNL
*For Registered Participants at Brookhaven Module of Opportunity
Here|. For DUNE Status, Stefan Soldner-Rembold
The Local and International Organizing Committees for this Workshop
included from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL): Steve
Kettell, Xin Qian, Jim Stewart, Hanyu Wei, Elizabeth Worcester, Bo Yu.
The Collaboration invited the broader particle physics community
to participate, and explore opportunities for novel detector
Fig. 21: Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) Near-Site Groundbreaking
started site preparation for Illinois portion.
November 14, 2019 -- Over the next few years
Fermilab is to build a new beamline for its accelerator complex to
direct the neutrino particles toward an underground cavern on the
Fermilab site to house a multi-component particle detector, and to the DUNE
detector (1300 Km away) in South Dakota. |Click Here|
Without neutrinos from Fermilab and with DUNE detector(s) in place, only a
long baseline neutrino beam e.g. from BNL (with AGS upgrade after few years) directed to South Dokota
allow scientists to investigate the neutrinos and their role in the
evolution of our universe: e.g., the neutrinos interactions as they
travel long distances; the differences between neutrinos and their
antimatter which can provide clues why we are made of matter not
antimatter; the neutrinos produced when a star explodes could reveal
the formation of neutron stars and black holes; and protons lifetime
(wether they live forever or eventually decay).
December 9–13, 2019 -- MicroBooNE
Analysis Retreat, Hosted at Brookhaven National Laboratory for "collaboration to work towards bringing MicroBooNE’s signature result (low-energy excess) and other physics results to public" in 2020.
Fig. 22: January 23-24, 2020 Daresbury APA Factory
in Jan 2020 DUNE Monthly Report (S. Kettle, BNL).
January 27 - 31, 2020 -- Collaboration Meeting -
Feruary 7, 2020 -- The four volumes of the DUNE
TDR by DUNE Collaboration have been published on the arXiv;
going to be submitted to JINST (according to S.S. Rembold). Click on:
Introduction to DUNE; |Volume Two| DUNE Physics;
|Volume Three| DUNE Far Detector Technical Coordination;
|Volume Four| DUNE Far Detector Single-phase Technology.
March 3, 2020 Stefan Soldner-Rembold, re-elected as DUNE Co-Spokesperson.
March 4 − 6, 2020 Long Baseline Neutrino Committee
(LBNC) Review at FNAL.
March 10−11, 2020 A TPC Electronics warm interface board (WIB) and overall
system PDR will be held at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL).
April 2 − 3, 2020 A Resource Review Board (RRB) meeting will be held at FNAL.
April 28 – May 1, 2020 FNAL Director’s Review of LBNF & DUNE
May 7 - 8, 2020 Calibration & cryogenic instrumentation
May 18 - 22, 2020 -- Collaboration
Meeting @ SURF Canceled due to COVID-19
Fig. 23: June 22, 2020 -- Neutrino 2020 Ice Cube Collaboration.
July 19, 2020 -- The Single Phase Liquid Argon Prototype at CERN
for DUNE ended its run . It studied: liquid argon purity, test beam events, tested high voltage systems,
and tested an injection of Xenon (13.5 kG for 18.8 ppm in mass). Xe shifts wavelength from
128 nm to 175 nm which increases the Rayleigh scattering length to increase uniformity and light yield. To see more on
ProtoDUNE Results |Here| .
Jul 22, 2020 Nuclear theory of neutrinoless double-beta
decay Workshop |Here|
August 10, 2020 -- The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment in
China (See Fig 13 Daya Bay Detector), and the MINOS accelerator
Experiment at FNAL issued a news
release that the “sterile” neutrino cannot be directly detected
in experiments but could be established based on its quantum
mechanical mixing with the three (electron, muon and tau) known
types of neutrinos; essentially rule out the combined anomalous
observations from LSND, MiniBooNE and other experiments...
August 12, 2020 Mini Workshop: Neutrino Electromagnetic Properties
September 1, 2020 -- For DUNE Glossary |Click Here|
and for "ABC DUNE" an online glossary that automatically generated from
LaTeX files used in design reports and other DUNE documents. |Click Here|.
September 4, 2020 -- DUNE Collaboration Call Meeting |DUNE-Updates & News|
September 21 - 25, 2020 -- DUNE Collaboration Meeting - Virtual
- talks: |Click Here| E.g., Sep. 21, 2020: Ed. Blucher University of Chicago,
|DUNE Status and Plans|;
Christopher Mossey LBNF/DUNE-US Project Director |LBNF Status| ;
Steve Kettell (Brookhaven National Laboratory) |Review Office|;
Elizabeth Worcester (Brookhaven National Laboratory), Snowmass Frontier Convener and DUNE Physics Coordinator | Snowmass Update|; etc.
September 25, 2020 -- S.Soldner-Rembold |Here|; For "DOE Basic
Research Needs for High Energy Physics Detector Research &
October 2, 2020 -- Rare Processes and Precision Frontier Meeting |Here|
October 5-8, 2020 -- Snowmass Community Planning Meeting - Virtual
| Here |.
Snowmass information |
Here| and Snowmass Category | Here |.
December 2-4, 2020 -- Next LBNC (Long Baseline Neutrino
Committee) meeting |Here| .
Last LBNC meeting Sep 14 - 16 report |Here|.
December 3, 2020 -- ProtoDUNE Single-Phase
Detector's 1st Physics Results published by DUNE Collaboration
|Here|. The ProtoDune-SP Detector
at CERN is performing with > 99% efficiency, is considered best performing
Liquid-Argon (L-AR) time projection chamber to date.
These first results “show that the ProtoDUNE-SP detector works even better
than was anticipated. DUNE co-spokesperson Stefan Söldner-Rembold, said:
"Now we are ready for the construction of 1st
components for the DUNE detector, which will feature detector modules
based on this prototype, but 20 times larger. We are happy with the 1st
physics results published; as some of our DUNE members (from BNL) delivered
Components for the Proto-DUNE Detector. E. Worcester, BNL said “the
ProtoDUNE results show that we have designed a detector that
will allow us to reach our science goals in DUNE"; etc. This first DUNE
paper, show how they were able to achieve a signal-to-noise
ratio of 50 to 1, which previously could not achieve for liquid-argon time
projection chambers. They also evaluated detector’s reliability and found
more than 99% of its 15,360 detector channels are functioning as they
Dec7, 2020 -- BNL Featured a "Story on first ProtoDUNE-SP.." posted |Here|
January 15, 2021 -- DUNE collaboration Call, for agenda
January 25-29, 2021 -- DUNE collaboration Virtual Meeting
Fig. 24: January 25-29, 2021; DUNE Collaboration Zoom Meeting; with over 600
Registered participants (some are shown here) including top
row (left-right:) Drs. Z. Parsa; Ed
Blucher & S. Söldner-Rembold (DUNE spokepersons); A.Himmel and M. Uchida. The
meeting covered various topics. E.g. see
all slides and talks |Here|.
Feb 17, 2021 -- Proto DUNE Meeting |snapshot|, and full Agenda |Here|.
Feb 22, 2021 Neu. Tel. conf practice talks
Feb 25, 2021 -- "Improving Neutrino Energy Reconstruction
.... at NOvA", D. Torbunov, Minnesota U. 3:00 pm, snapshots |Here| and |Here| ; Full talk
Feb 18-26, 2021 XIXX International Neutrino Telescopes
(Neu.Tel.) Workshop, with focus on "Large Detectors for Neutrino
Astrophysics, Neutrino Physics and Cosmology", about 1000 registered
participants, for the Timetable click |Here|.,
and click for the Conference
Fig. 25: (Left:) Regina Rameica,
FNAL is the newly elected DUNE Cospokeperson
to serve with (Right:) Stefan
March 15-18, 2021 -- "New Directions in Neutrino-Nucleus
Scattering" (NDNN) workshop;
for agenda click
April 12-16, 2021. "28th International Workshop on
Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects" (DIS2021); for
this (Zoom) meeting click |Here|.
April 21, 2021 ProtoDUNE DRA Meeting Agenda;
Some Participants; Snapshot2
April 22, 2021 at 11:30 am EST, ProtoDUNE DRA Meeting
May 17-21, 2021 DUNE Collaboration Meeting (Virtual)
Fig. 26: May 21, 2021 Dr. Zohreh Parsa (BNL)
at the DUNE Collaboration Meeting and
|Participants|, a |Snapshot|;
May 20, 2021
May 17-19, 2021
|Participants Contd.| & May 17 Collab. Meeting
July 11-20, 2021 Snowmass 2021
workshop delayed by a year (to July 17-27, 2022 in Seattle). Main Conference Website
August 19-25, 2021 -- For the 20th Lomonosov Conference |Click Here|
Sep 20-24, 2021 Collaboration Meeting (TBD) |Here| .
2022 -- The Snowmass2022,Main Conference Website
The "Summer 2022" study at U. of Washington Seattle, and the "Snowmass Book" in "October 2022"...
6. Updates 1999-2021
Fig. 27: Physicist Zohreh Parsa who in 1998 at BNL started the LBNE (very
Long Baseline Neutrino physics and Experiment), maintained 1999-2021
the "Brookhaven Neutrino Homepage" https://neutrino.bnl.gov alias
https://Neutrinos.bnl.gov, continued the Neutrino Physics as part
of the DUNE (Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment) and DUNE/LBNF Collaboration;
complementary and supportive of BNL and the international neutrino program.
*[Mail: Prof. Dr. Z. Parsa, Physics 510A, Brookhaven
Upton, NY 11973-5000 USA. Tel: 631-344-2085; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org].
7. On Neutrio/DUNE related Youtube: