Recent & Past Highlights

Dr. Zohreh Parsa Neutrino Physics; CPV, and LBNE she started in 1998 has been high priority mega science project for over a decade.

Dr.William Marciano Neutrino Physics, etc.; Awarded J. J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics (2002) Dr. Nicholas Samios Early measurements of neutrino electron elastic scattering etc.;  Awarded Gian Carlo Wick Gold Medal   (2009) Dr. Raymond Davis Awarded 2002 Physics Nobel Prize for detecting Solar Neutrinos! Dr. Maurice Goldhaber
Experiment, revealed ν's to be left-handed, property known as "spin" Awarded National Medal of Science.
Dr. Melvin Schwartz Awarded Nobel Prize for Discovery of the Muon-Neutrino (1988).

Neutrino Physics & Experiment

1. Past History

Neutrino physics has had an interesting history. In 1930 Dr. Pauli postulated the existence of the (electron) neutrino, in 1956 this was confirmed by Drs. Reines and Cowan using a nuclear reactor source of antineutrinos. In 1962, a second distinct (muon) neutrino was shown to exist in a BNL experiment. For that discovery Nobel Prize was awarded to Drs. Lederman, Schwartz and Steinberger. In 1995, the third, (tau) neutrino was detected at FNAL. In parallel, Dr. Ray Davis' studies of solar neutrinos confirmed understanding of stellar dynamics modulo a 2/3 flux deficit that later was recognized as a result of ν oscillations among the three flavors of neutrinos. properties of those oscillations were further unveiled with followup solar, atmospheric, reactor and accelerator neutrino studies . The discovery of oscillations, detection
of 19 neutrino events from supernova 1987a by the old IMB and Kamiokande water cerenkov detectors confirmed the theory of supernova explosions. The WMAP experiment has started to see imprints of neutrino mass effects on the cosmic microwave background radiation left from the Big Bang.

2. Introduction

In 1998 Dr. Zohreh Parsa started the Neutrino /CP Violation studies, that envisioned sending a very intense neutrino beam from Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York through the earth to a (Long Baseline L, 1200 km < L < 4000 km) far away underground multipurpose large detector capable of: making precision measurements of all the (ν) neutrino oscillation parameters providing a major advance in ν science; search for proton decay; and observation of natural sources of neutrinos such as supernova.

The key to this approach is a very long distance. Length (L) of the Baseline defines the physics you can do,   once chosen, can not be changed without establishing a complete new facility.

By measuring muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance, such a project would be capable of determining all 3 generation mixing angles, mass hierarchy, along with magnitude of the CP violation ( measuring CKM phase & explicitly observing differences in the muon neutrino and muon anti-neutrino oscillations). No existing experiment so far has such capability.

3. Very Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment

Using a wide band muon neutrino beam from BNL to a 2540 km underground ( 0.5 megaton water Cherenkov) detector at Homestake gold Mine in South Dakota was one of our first study for "very Long Baseline (underground detector) Neutrino Experiment" (LBNE).

Interest for LBNE in U.S. with neutrino source at BNL to a far underground Detector L=2540 km away at Homestake, S.D. grew AL Mann (U.Pensylvania) was one of the 1st to ask Dr. Parsa to show her results for neutrino source/beam from BNL to faraway undergraond detector in Homestake Gold Mine in South Dakota. He and others became increasingly intersted in seeing/ showing her results and worked hard to get funding for the Processing of the Mine to a National Underground Science Lab (NUSL, later called "DUSEL").

At BNL, in addition to Dr. Parsa; later Drs. Marciano, then S. Kahn, K.McDonald (Princeton) and others joined the Very long baseline studies at BNL. Later others became interested in the (Extra or) Very "Long Baseline Neuteino Experiment" (LBNE) that could search for CP violation in the lepton sector and precision studies of the neutrino mixing matrix, etc. More U.S. and International members joined, LBNE collaboration was formed and expanded with time.  Example of some of our earlier LBNE simulations are given below.

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Fig.1 (Top Fig) Variation of parameters, e.g. variation of L (Baseline) distance from ν source to the detector, in Probability vs Energy plots. Fig.2 (Lower Fig) CP Phase Variations, in Probability vs Energy plots.

Fig.3:   3-dimensional (schematic) view of the BNL neutrino beamline.The beam line is shown without shielding on top of the beam-line magnets and the decay tunnel.

Fig. 4: Show Schematic of the BNL-AGS RHIC facility and location of the beam line for sending neutrino beam to Homestake mine in South Dakota and any detector in Western Direction. For more info |click Here|

Fig. 5:   Shows BNL, FNAL and 3 last possible DUSEL Detector Sites, Homestake (SD),Henderson (CO), and Cascades (WA).

Potentials of intense neutrino beams from BNL and FNAL to (Long Baseline) underground Detectors at Homestake, SD; Henderson, CO; Cascades, WA; etc.; were also investigated and studied as competition for Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory Site increased. Later Homestake, S.D. was selected.

Fig. 6:    Drs. Z. Parsa, W. Marciano and R. Wilson in Henderson (Molybdenum Mine), was a proposed Underground Lab site in Co.

Interest for LBNE in U.S. with neutrino source at BNL to a far Detector L=2540 km away (underground) at Homestake, S.D. grew. But after over a decade, possibility of LBNE with source at BNL became less likely, due to years of funding delays, etc.     "LBNE Collaboration" with U.S. and International members continued to grow. Over a dacade later, LBNE was renamed as DUNE; LBNE Collaboration became DUNE Collaboration. For more info on DUNE, see below and Tab 15.

Fig. 7    Super-Kamiokande, 50-kiloton water Cherenkov detector, (placed 3300 feet underground in a cavern ~ 40 m high and 40 m wide,) filled with water and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) on its walls.

Fig. 8: Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment members from BNL
May 2014

4. LBNE (Reconfiguration) with Neutrino Source at FNAL

Using a high intensity accelerator neutrino beam from Fermilab (FNAL) to a (L=1287.475 km=800 miles baseline) liquid argon TPC detector at SURF (Homestake) is the LBNE reconfiguration. The goals for this program are determination of leptonic CP violation, the neutrino mass hierarchy, and underground physics.

Fig. 9:   Schematic of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment
with source at FNAL to 800 miles possible Detecotr site(s).

On Dec 10, 2012, DOE granted Critical Decision 1 (CD-1) approval to the first phase of LBNE, which includes construction of a neutrino beamline at Fermilab (where the neutrino beam would travel through 800 miles of earth to a (near-surface) far detector at Sanford Lab in Lead, S.D. For Proposed LBNE Factsheet |click| For Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) DOE's approval of CD-1 was an important milestone after over decade of work.

For Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) DOE's approval of CD-1 was an important milestone after over decade of work at BNL.


The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) expected to use the most intense neutrino beam and a larg detector to study neutrino (v) the most abundant matter particles in the universe. scientists are working to discover the missing pieces that could explain e.g., how the known particles and forces created in our universe; discover if neutrino is the reason our matter-filled universe exists, to check formation of black hole in a nearby galaxy; proton decay, etc.    To View a DUNE/LBNF Show |click Here|. when page opens (to a black screen), click on it again to start the show.

The full-size DUNE detectors, expected to be built about a mile underground at the Sanford Research Facility (in homestake, South Dakota).   For the 35-Ton Prototype Particle Detector for DUNE (YouTube): |Click Here|

Fig. 10: 35-Ton DUNE Particle Detector (Symmetry/ibid Collaboration)

May 22, 2014 - P5 Report recommended new international LBNF (Long Baseline Neutrino Facility), with FNAL as the host Lab, (see Left Tab for P5 Report, etc).

"Left Tabs" provide more on LBNE with beam from FNAL to a Detecor at SURF (DUNE/LBNF). Also News; Reports, Reactor and Solar neutrino experiments, etc.

Fig. 11:  Shows Some of DUNE (previously LBNE) Collaboration members from Brookhaven National Lab; including Drs. Z. Parsa, W. Marciano, M. Diwan, S. Kettle, N. Samios (1 to 5). **Above photo had low resolution when received. If you number and name all members shown that version of this photo will be considered for posting.

Fig. 12:   March 4, 2015 Neutrino Workshop Participants at Brookhaven. For Larger version of this photo. |Click Here|

Fig. 13:    DUNE International Collaboration

For Larger version of this photo.  |Click Here|
  • March 2015 -- LBNE (Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment) was changed to ELBNF (Experiment at the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility) at FNAL. ELBNF new spokespersons Andre Rubbia (CERN) & Mark Thomson (UK), in their E-mail thanked ELBNF/DUNE* (previously LBNE) collaboration.
  • Dec 2015 Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) Conceptual Design Report; Vol 1 The LBNF and DUNE Project DUNE-CDR1-1601.05471
  • April 6, 2016 -- Update on the status of the 35-ton detector operations.
  • May 27, 2016 -- DUNE spokepersons wrote: The document describing the "DUNE Strategy and Implementation Plan for 2016 - 2019” was approved by the EC earlier today. The document is available as docdb-1050.
  • June 3, 2016 -- E. James wrote: An external review of the 35-ton program designed to identify lessons learned that can be applied to the ProtoDUNE program was held over the past two days at Fermilab. For the agenda and documentation for the review |Click Here |
  • June 8, 2016 -- Proposal for a Full-Scale Prototype Single-Phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber and Detector Beam Test at CERN |Click Here||
  • June 17, 2016 -- For E. James on: Proto DUNE-SP DAQ Team Co-leader. |Click Here|

  • Fig. 14: DUNE Collaboration at CERN
    with US and International members, January 2017.

  • Jan 23-27, 2017-- For "DUNE: Status, Plans and Organization" (see page 41) |Here|;  For Mathew Worcester talk |HERE|;   For All CERN talks click |Here|.
  • Feb 27, 2017 -- For Long Baseline PWG agenda on Indico click |Here|. (This is 1st time Zoom Connection used); For DUNE LBL PWG Meeting talks |click| Here.
  • March 3, 2017 -- New DUNE co-Spokesperson is Ed Blucher.
  • March 27-29, 2017 -- For "DUNE near detector workshop" |Click Here|.
  • April 4, 2017 --"The consensus was that DUNE Near Detector system should include both a LAr-TPC and a high-resolution tracker .E.g. For Kam-Biu Luk message |Click| here.

    Fig. 15: (Left to Right) DUNE Spokepersons, Ed Blucher (U Chicago) & M. Thomson (UK); Technical Coordinator: E.James; & International Project Manager S.Kettel, BNL

    Fig. 16: May 2017 -- DUNE Collaboration at FNAL,
    For a larger version Click | Here| and for Talks |Here| .

  • June 23, 2017 -- ProtoDUNE-Technical Design Report TDR-1706.07081: |Here|.
  • June 26, 2017-- Dual-phase Far Detector Consortia |Here|

    Fig. 17: July 21, 2017 LBNF Groundbreaking |Here| --one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, construction began as part of LBNF (Long Baseline Neutrino Facility). Excavating Crews will excavate four massive caverns that will house DUNE . View YouTube |LBNF Groundbreaking|

  • Sep 4-7, 2017 -- "Recent developments on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics" Workshop to be held at: Gran Sasso National Laboratory. For Workshop web page click |Here|.
  • Sep 20, 2017 -- "UK Science Minister signed the first ever UK - US Science and Technology Agreement and announced a UK commitment of £65M to DUNE, LBNF and PIP-II" |Here|.

  • Jan 2018 --- "Next DUNE Collaboration meeting" on |Indico|.
  • Jan 29 - Feb 2, 2018 --- Neutrino Platform Week, see Here;
  • March 1, 2018 ---
    Fig. 18: (Left to Right) New DUNE Co-Spoke- person Prof. Stefan Söldner-Rembold,   University of Manchester and Co-Spokeperson Prof. Ed Blucher, Univ. of Chicago .

  • March 20 - 22, 2018 --- "DOE Project Review of LBNF - DUNE" at FNAL; |Here|
  • May 15-18, 2018 — DUNE Collaboration meeting. For registration |Click Here|.

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    Neutrino (& Neutrinos) updated: 1999-2018   Dr. Zohreh Parsa,
    Physics Dept. 510A, Brookhaven National Lab, Upton NY 11973.

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